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Rigorous Testing Ensures Your Satisfaction

No matter the project, Daltile has a tile that can bring your vision to life. But style is only one part of the equation. That’s why we use nothing but proven testing methods that meet industry standards to ensure your tile selection not only looks great, but also performs to your expectations.

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) are nationally recognized organizations that identify and develop industry test methods and technical standards. Daltile uses their methods and standards as we place our products through rigorous testing to ensure optimal performance.  

From determining a tile’s coefficient of friction to understanding the different classes of abrasion resistance, we invite you to read through the specific testing methods to better guide you in your tile selection process.

Understanding the Tests and How They Work

  • Abrasion Resistance Test: ASTM C1027-99
  • Breaking Strength Ceramic Tile Test: ASTM C648-04
  • Chemical Resistance Test: ASTM C650-04
  • Scratch Hardness Test: MOH’s Scale Ratings
  • Shade Variations
  • Water Absorption Test: ASTM C373-88

How durable is the tile you’ve selected? This test measures the durability of glazed tile subjectively by observing the visible surface abrasion of the tile when subjected to the testing procedure. Daltile evaluates glazed tile recommended for floor applications using this test method, which includes the following classification system:

Class Zero (0)

Not recommended for use on floors.

Class One (1)

(Light Residential)

Light Traffic - Residential floor coverings in areas subject to soft-soled footwear or normal footwear traffic, without scratching dirt (i.e., domestic bathrooms and bedrooms without exterior access).

Class Two (2)


Medium to Light Traffic - Residential floor coverings in areas subject to soft-soled footwear or normal footwear traffic with small amounts of scratching dirt (i.e., rooms in the living areas of homes except kitchens, entrances and other areas that may be subjected to high usage).

Class Three (3)

(Heavy Residential or Light Commercial)

Medium to Heavy Traffic - Residential or light commercial may withstand normal footwear and regular traffic, with some dirt and/or other abrasives present in limited quantities. Tile in this class may be used in light commercial installations with limited foot traffic and with no direct access to the outside. Examples may include residential kitchens and hallways with limited traffic from the outside.

Class Four (4)


Heavy Traffic - Residential and commercial floor coverings subjected to considerable traffic and scratching dirt (i.e., entrances, workrooms, inns, exhibition halls and sales rooms, as well as other rooms in public and private buildings). Floors should be adequately protected against scratching dirt at the entrances to buildings by either floor mats or some other footwear-cleaning device.

Class Five (5)

(Heavy Commercial)

Heavy Traffic - Heavy commercial floor coverings subject to heavy traffic with very abrasive soil.

Ceramic tiles used on floors and walls must be able to withstand the expected load-bearing capacity of various installations. The tile industry uses this test to determine the strength and durability of the tile. A force is applied to an unsupported portion of the tile specimen until breakage occurs. The ultimate breaking strength is then recorded in pounds. Final selection of the tile should be based upon the breaking strength and the appropriate installation method. Tile integrity is critically dependent upon proper installation. Daltile recommends strict adherence to industry installation guidelines set forth in ANSI A108, A118 and A136.
This test is used to determine how different chemicals affect the look and appearance of a tile. As part of this test, a tile sample is placed in continuous contact with a variety of chemicals for 24 hours, rinsing the surface and then examining the surface for visible variation.
When selecting a tile, always consider the relative hardness of glazed tile. We conduct this test by scratching the surface of the tile with different minerals and subjectively assigning a "MOH's Scale Hardness" number to the glaze; the softest mineral used is talc ("1" rating) and the hardest is a diamond ("10" rating). Other minerals of varying hardness provide MOH's Scale Hardness values of 5 to 7 and are suitable for most residential floor applications. A value of 7 or greater is normally recommended for commercial applications.
Monochromatic (V0)  Very uniform, monochromatic color 
Low (V1) Consistent color within each tile and from tile to tile
Medium (V2) Color variation within each tile
High (V3) Some variation from tile to tile, and within each tile
Random (V4) Considerable variation from tile to tile

Individual tiles are weighed, saturated with water, and then weighed again. The percent difference between the two conditions is referred to as the water absorption value. Tiles are classified according to water absorption percentages as follows:

Impervious  Tiles exhibiting 0.5% or less
Vitreous Tiles exhibiting more than 0.5% but not more than 3.0%
Semi-Vitreous Tiles exhibiting more than 3.0% but not more than 7.0%
Non-Vitreous Tiles exhibiting more than 7.0%

*Neither ASTM nor ANSI establish an industry standard identifying a minimum COF value whereby ceramic tile may be labeled "slip resistant."

All Standard Grade ceramic tile products manufactured by or for Daltile meet or exceed the requirements of ANSI A137.1. See product pages for series-specific technical data.